In early September 2014, the CCSBT Scientific Committee reviewed and re-confirmed the latest data indicated that Southern Bluefin Tuna (SBT) was recovering strongly (see CCSBT website). The scientists concluded that the SBT was sustainable at even higher catch levels. Based on their model, the Scientific Committee unanimously recommended an increase in the global SBT quota quota from 9,449 tonnes in 2011 to 14,647 tonnes in 2015. The rise in Australia’s quota for 2015 is 472 tonnes.
A Cautious Approach to Increased Catch Quotas
Governments have been cautious and decided to phase in the 3,000 tonnes increase over the three years 2012-2014. The result was an increase of 1,000 tonnes in 2012, another 500 tonnes in 2013 and another 1,000 tonnes rise in 2013. Australian industry supports this cautious approach.
These increases can be recommended by the scientists because of the big quota cuts in 1988, in 2006 and 2009 – and because of the end of the previous over-catch. The fishery is now sustainable because of the major past quota cuts. This now allows the increased quotas to be fully sustainable.
Current Assessments of the Southern Bluefin Tuna – Wild Fishery
The SBT stock is recovering under the CCSBT Management Procedure and is officially classified at 9% of original spawning biomass.
Parallel to the Management Procedure, CSIRO has developed a new DNA matching technology called Close-kin which enables the SBT spawning stock biomass to be measured differently than the current models. The result shows the spawning stock to be at least three (3) times the level calculated by the models. This advance in technology will to lead to close-kin results being gradually incorporated into the SBT stock assessment and the Management Procedure.
The two managers of the SBT wild Fishery in Australia are:
- The Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna (CCSBT) decides each year on the global Southern Bluefin Tuna quota, and then allocates the quota between the participating countries. These are (with the 2014 quota in brackets):
- Australia (5,193 tonnes)
- Japan (3,403)
- Korea and Taiwan (1,045 each)
- New Zealand (918)
- Indonesia (750)
- The Australian Government – including Agencies such as the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry (DAFF), the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (SEWPAC) and the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA). DAFF co-ordinates the Australian approach to the CCSBT. SEWPAC administers the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC) Act which constantly assesses the sustainability of Southern Bluefin Tuna under three separate parts of the Environment Act.
International and national independent assessment
In 2013, the CCSBT commissioned an independent quality assurance consultant, SAI Global, to assess the SBT management system of each CCSBT country. Australia was the first to be assessed (see the SAI Report on Australia – www.ccsbt.org CCSBT-CC/1410/10, August 2014).
The main SAI conclusion is:
“Australia’s SBT management systems have been shown to be effective in terms of CCSBT’s minimum performance requirements, with well-established fisheries legislation, a strong fisheries management regulatory system, and established fisheries reporting and sanctions.”
The SAI Report for Australia was accepted by the CCSBT in October 2014 (see www.ccsbt.org ‘Report of Compliance Committee’).
As well as the very positive report from the external assessment of the Australian fishery, the Commonwealth Department of Environment under the EPBC Act, renewed accreditation for the SBT fishery. This assessment process has very similar criteria to the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC).
The EPBC accreditation was renewed in 2013, and again covered in detail the EPBC criteria on the impact on ecosystems (see www.environment.gov.au). The accreditation again reiterated that fishing techniques and catching of SBT for ranching, has no ecosystem impact. For the first time, in 2013 the accreditation was extended for three years rather than the previous shorter periods.
Sustainability status of feed supplies for tuna ranching
The SA sardine fishery remains the major feed source for SBT ranching. The SA sardine fishery is managed in a precautionary way, based on decision rules linked to egg surveys and sardine fish size (length) in the catch. See www.pir.sa.gov.au for the history and management of the sardine fishery.
The 2015 sardine quota has been fixed on 14/10/14 at 38,000 tonnes, compared with 34,000 tonnes in 2014. This is near historical highs – reflecting the very high 2014 egg survey. The fishery is managed by ITQ’s with a maximum 14 licences.
Over 96% of the SA quota is used for SBT ranching feed. Of this, about 80% is fed fresh direct into the pontoons after catching and the balance is fed frozen.